King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Substrate effects on silicene and how to exploit them
Udo Schwingenschlögl is a Professor of Materials Science & Engineering at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. He previously worked at the International Center of Condensed Matter Physics in Brasilia, Brazil, and the University of Augsburg, Germany. His research interests in condensed matter physics and first-principles materials modeling focus on 2D materials, interface and defect physics, correlated materials, thermoelectric materials, metal-ion batteries, nanoparticles, and quantum transport.
Silicene is the Si analogue of graphene with the same honeycomb structure and linear dispersions of the π and π* bands at the K point of the Brillouin zone. It is predicted to realize a buckled structure, due to sp2-sp3 hybridization, and is compatible with the current Si-based nano-electronics. Silicene yet has not been achieved by mechanical exfoliation but can be deposited on metallic substrates such as Ag(111), Ir(111), and ZrB2(0001). Regrettably, strong interaction to these substrates destroys the Dirac physics. For this reason, semiconducting substrates, including Si(111) and SiC(0001), have been explored theoretically to evaluate whether they lead to a Dirac cone with reasonable band gap (which is essential for applications). However, surface passivation is inevitable for these and similar substrates, due to their dangling bonds. Layered materials such as MgBr2(0001), MoX2, and GaX2 (X = S, Se, and Te), on the other hand, might preserve the characteristic electronic states of silicene and additionally simplify the preparation procedure as passivation is not required. The predicted effects of different substrates on silicene will be compared and evaluated with respect to technological requirements.
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, UAE
Fabrication of CIGS Nanowires based on Electrodeposition for Photovoltaic Applications
Dr. Daniel Choi received his B.S. in Metallurgical Engineering from Seoul National University (South Korea) and Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from UCLA. Dr. Choi was a staff member for three years at the Aerospace Corporation anda task manager Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)/NASA for nine years, leading a number of space-related projects such as Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory project. He was an associate professor and director of the Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) program at University of Idaho (USA). Currently, he is Founding Department Head of the Mechanical and Materials Engineering in the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, UAE. He is also a Science Team for UAE Emirates Mars Mission Program.
Nanomaterial-based solar cells attract people’s attention for its clean and renewable properties. One-dimensional nanostructures can provide attractive architectures for solar energy applications, not only because of the unique physical properties that can be seen from the nanometer-scale structures but because of geometrical impacts that affect the performance of solar cells. Copper (Cu)-Indium (In)-Gallium (Ga)-Selenide (Se) CIGS nanowires are promising materials for solar cell applications due to the large light abortion coefficient (around ~105 cm−1), and wide adjustable bandgap range (1.04 to 1.72 eV). We present a feasible approach for fabrication of CuIn(1−x)GaxSe2 (CIGS) nanowire based solar cell by taking advantage of size-effect which increase the effective pn junction size per cell. This electrochemistry-based process includes one-step electrodeposition technique to grow CIGS nanowires into the porous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) template, which is a cost-effective alternative process to vacuum-based deposition process. Composition of CIGS nanowires, determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), was achieved through a manipulation of the applied potential and composition of electrolytes. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that crystallinity of CIGS nanowires were improved by annealing. We fabricated the solar cell structure by etching AAO structure after growing highly ordered vertical array of CIGS nanowires as p-type. Chemical bath deposition was followed to deposit a smooth CdS layer as n-type, thin-film of PEDOT:PSS was deposited by spin coating as top layer to act as a transparent and conductive layer.
University of Ferrara, Italy
Nanoparticles to Deliver Antisense Oligoribonucleotides for Exon skipping Therapies: Review and New
Alessandra Ferlini specialized in Neurology (1988) and Medical Genetics (1993) at the Universities of Bologna and Ferrara. In 2002 she achieved a PhD in Genetics at the Imperial College School of Medicine in London (UK). She is Director of both Unit (Hospital) and Section (University) of Medical Genetics. As part of her professional career she has accomplished profound research experience at the Universities of Bologna, Padova, Milan and Modena. In 1995 she moved to London where she worked as Senior Research Officer at the Hammersmith Hospital, Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Paediatrics, under the supervision of Prof. F. Muntoni. In June 1999 she returned to Italy.
She acts as Reviewer for more than 60 JCR referenced scientific Journals and Funding Agencies. She participated to several National and International meetings as a speaker.
Neuromuscular disorders such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) are neurodegenerative genetic diseases characterized primarily by muscle weakness and wasting. Until recently there were no effective therapies for these conditions, but antisense oligonucleotides, a new class of synthetic single stranded molecules of nucleic acids, have demonstrated promising experimental results and are at different stages of regulatory approval.
The antisense oligonucleotides can modulate the protein expression via targeting hnRNA or mRNA and inducing interference with splicing, mRNA degradation, or arrest of translation, finally, resulting in rescue or reduction of the target protein expression.
Drug delivery is crucial to optimize new therapies, and nanovectors represent an emerging approach, being already successful in cancer treatments, in which nanochaperons are already being used in clinical trials. Finding suitable efficient and safe delivery system is also crucial for antisense oligonucleotides, to improve their cell penetration, to achieve more robust target engagement, and hopefully also be associated with acceptable toxicity.
Therefore the development of non-viral vectors like nanocarriers represent a potential boost for the success of gene therapy, which, relying on nucleic acid materials like DNA and several types of RNA molecules (small interfering RNA, antisense oligonucleotides, microRNA), is already showing promise in the treatment of several diseases (cancers, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disorders, neurological pathologies).We tested several nanoparticles types to deliver antisense oligoribonucleotides inducing dystrophin favourable exon skipping. These new nanocarriers were tested in cells and animal models. Results were encouraging and we demonstrated dystrophin restoration and therapeutic effects. Safety issues were also addressed.
Improved Drug Delivery and Therapeutic Efficacy of PEgylated liposomaldoxorubicin by Targeting Anti-
Masoumeh Zahmatkeshanhas her expertise in drug delivery and nanotechnology. Her open and contextual evaluation modelcreatesnew combination and optimization pathways for treatment of breast cancer. She has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation and teaching both in research and education institutions. The foundation is based on fourth generation evaluation (Guba& Lincoln, 1989) which is a methodology that utilizes the previous generations of evaluation: measurement, description and judgment. It allows for value-pluralism. This approach is responsive to all stakeholders and has a different way offocusing.
Statement of the Problem: The most common chemotherapy regimens for treating cancer is based on the application of non specific cytotoxic substances which can induce toxic side effects. Targeted cancer therapy is a powerful therapeutic strategy to management of cancer. HER2 as ananticancer target has long been studied. Its overexpression plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progressiveness of breast and other cancers.
Methodology & Theoretical Orientation to establish efficient and reliable drug delivery to HER2-over expressing cells, the authors of this study have developed anti-HER2 (ErbB2) peptide-liposomal formulations of doxorubicin (DOX) by an engineered breast tumor targeting peptide ligand, AHNP, Anti-HER2/neu peptide,(FCDGFYACYADV) with threeglycine amino acids as spacer before its original sequencing. Towards this goal, PEGylated liposome doxorubicin (PLD) bearing different ligand densities of AHNP was prepared and characterized for their size, zeta potential and peptide conjugation. The AHNP functionalization and density effects on breast tumor cell uptake, selective cytotoxicity, prevention of tumorgrowth and the tissue biodistribution of encapsulated DOX were studied in mice bearing TUBO breast cancer tumor model.
Findings: The findings demonstrated that increasing the ligand density of AHNP increases cytotoxicity and cell-uptake in SKBR3 and TUBO cells which overexpress HER2 but not in MDA-MB-231with low HER2 expression profile. The anticancer activity was also superior for targeted liposomal DOX with more AHNP densities.Conclusion & Significance: This experiment displayed the greatpotential of AHNP as a targeting moiety on the liposome surface and emphasized the significance of adjusting density of ligand to maximize the targeting capability of the nano drug delivery systems.Overall, the results showed that optimum AHNP density functionalization of PLD can significantly improve selectivity and the therapeutic index of liposomal DOX in the treatment of HER2 positive breast cancer and merits further investigation.
Isak Rajjak Shaikh
Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, India
Young Researcher : MWCNT Reinforced Silica Aerogel by Ambient Pressure Drying: Preparation, Charact
Aerogels are nanostructured and open porous solids that are usually prepared in a first step by the traditional low-temperature sol-gel synthesis followed by the second step of drying at pressure and temperature higher than the critical point of the pore fluid. Though Kistler performed the first synthesis of silica aerogel in 1931, it is generally assumed as recent discovery due to its relative obscurity until lately. These fragile materials are well known for their low density, porosity and high surface area. Off late, silica aerogels and modified aerogels have been widely employed as catalyst support and catalysts. Carbon catalyzes reactions and the advanced materials like carbon nano tubes can substitute conventional catalyst supports and are also capable of catalyzing reactions. Uzma K. H. Bangi et al. reported the successful incorporation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) into silica aerogels for improving the mechanical strength. But the capability and potential applications of such materials were never explored. This abstract briefs on our research involving preparation of MWCNT incorporated sodium silicate based aerogel by ambient pressure drying. The MWCNT/Silica aerogel sample was appropriately characterized. The XRD pattern and the N2-adsorption desorption experiments confirmed the characteristic porous aerogel; the SEM identified its morphology and the surface functional groups or modification are realized by FT-IR and Raman Spectroscopy which furthered our understanding of the surface and the organic compounds-solvent-solid interactions. The aerogel composite performs as a recyclable catalyst in multicomponent reaction and its another application demonstrates the decolourisation of Eriochrome Black T and Methylene Blue from their aqueous solutions. As far as highlighting the importance of the MWCNT/Silica Aerogel is concerned, it should be stressed that this research not only reports the aerogel composite in significant catalytic and environmental applications but also bears further scope in using this versatile aerogel nanocomposite in some interesting and feasible geoengineering applications by way of its coating on fabric and also by way of developing aerogel as a sky-ceiling.(4) In addition to this, the composite material is found to fluoresces well and also helps us identify adsorption of volatile organics that are prevalent in comet dust and also the inter-stellar medium. Hence there is a good scope for developing this aerogel composite for storing organics and their spectroscopic detection. Though the aerogel tends to have high colour stability, this e.g. with rutile titania, is worth developing for UV inhibition purpose. Such new possibilities provide new proving grounds for the scientific fraternity in developing these functional materials for their use in a broad spectrum of applications including catalysis, adsorption, space suit, aerogel tiles for comet dust collector and other space exploration activities, etc.
Manipal University, India
Copper oxide Thin Films grown by dc magnetron sputtering for Solar cell applications
Solar energy is a form of clean energy we received from the Sun, which can be harnessed using a range of technologies. It includes photovoltaics, solar thermal heating, artificial photo synthesis etc. An ideal photovoltaic material is the one which helps in absorbing most of the radiation incident on it. In the present work, we have utilized copper oxide thin films and they were grown by a direct current magnetron sputtering technique. A 2 inch copper target of 99.99% purity was used as the sputter target and the depositions were carried by using argon as sputter gas and oxygen as reactive gas. All the depositions were carried out room temperature. The ratio of sputter and reactive gas during deposition was tuned to get the desired physical properties. We have studied the structural details and absorption behavior of the grown films. It was observed that the deposition conditions play a major role in obtaining a desired crystalline phase. The deposition conditions were optimized for achieving the cupric oxide phase, since they offer high absorption coefficient and desired electrical properties. Optical energy gap of the grown films obtained from the spectrophotometric studies was found to be 1.6 eV. Carrier type and the resistivity values of the films were obtained with the help of Hall effect measurements. Based on our results, we found that the films are suitable for solar energy applications.
Rathod Aravind Kumar
CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, India
Poster : Catalyst-Free Synthesis of Novel 6-phenyl-6H-chromeno [4, 3-b] quinoline derivatives at RT:
A variety of novel quinoline derivatives (6-phenyl-6H-chromeno [4,3-b] quinoline) have been prepared by using 4-chloro-2-phenyl-2H-chromene-3-carbaldehyde and various substitutes of aromatic anilines as starting materials. This is the first example on the preparation of quinolines through this novel method. The resulting quinoline derivatives further structure evolution may lead to an anti cancer agents. Our preliminary data of model compound (7i) on three cancer cell lines (B16F10, MCF7 and A549) suggested decent anticancer activity on two cell lines (B16F10 and MCF7) with IC50 values of 14.8 and 21.32 µM, respectively. This method may require simple operation and works with a variety of substrates.
M. Zubair Iqbal
Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering , China
Young Researcher : Facile fabrication route for Mn3O4-TiO2 Janus nanoparticles for cancer theranosti
Dr. M. Zubair Iqbal, a Postdoc Research Fellow at Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), belong to Pakistan.I obtained my doctor degree in Experimental Condensed Matter Physics from University of Science and Technology Beijing, China and then joined Biomaterials research group under in Division of Functional Materials and Nano-Devices at NIMTE and mainly focus on research.I have been involved in fabrication of biomaterials for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, drug delivery and Cancer Therapeutic Applications. I have published more than 50 research articles in reputed international journals, few patents, obtained many national and international research awards/grants and participated in many international conferences.
Janus nanoparticles with multiple con?gurations of molecular imaging, targeting and therapeutic functions in cancers made them very attractive for biomedical applications. However, smart strategies for the controlled synthesis in liquid phase and explore the appropriate applications of Janus nanoparticles remain a challenge. In current investigation, a unique solution based method was employed to fabricate Mn3O4-TiO2/ZnO/Fe3O4 multifunctional binary transition-metal oxide basedJanus nanoparticles (JNPs) using the concept of epitaxial growth and lattice mismatch among synthesized materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results have demonstrated that the prepared materials are embedded in the form of dimmers with good dispersion and homogeneous growth in non-polar solvent. Pluronic® F-127 coated Mn3O4-TiO2 JNPs were employed as contrast agent in T1- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancers in vitro and in vivo. In vivo T1-weighted MR imaging of heart, liver, and kidney in mice after intravenous injection of nanoparticles further verified the high sensitivity and biocompatibility of as-synthesized Mn3O4-TiO2 JNPs. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXRF) microscopy mapping results showed the stability of nanocomposites and strength of penetrating inside cytoplasm and around nucleus. Inorganic photosensitizers TiO2 demonstrated potential PDT tumor ablation performance in vitro and in vivo at very low intensity of UV (5.6 mW/cm2) because of their ultra-small size and photodegradable stability. These results reveal that multifunctional Mn3O4-TiO2 Janus nanoparticles enhance T1 MRI contrast agent with excellent ability of photodynamic therapy function which might be a novel candidate for cancer theranostic in future.
Govt Sadiq Egerton College, Pakistan
Poster : EFFECT OF ANNEALING TEMPERATURE ON PARTICLE SIZE OF ZINC FERRITE NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR PH
Zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4) nanoparticles have been synthesized by Microemulsion method from Fe(NO3)3.9H2O and Zn(NO3)2.6H2O. C-TAB was used as surfactant and the reaction was carried out in basic medium by using Ammonium hydroxide solution. The synthesized materials were annealed at different temperatures, such as 500 , 600 and 750 and the product was characterized by using XRD, FTIR and photocatalysis. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of single-phase nanoparticles of zinc ferrite and the particle size and the X-ray density of the annealed ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles linearly increased with the increase in temperature and decrease in lattice parameter was noticed. FTIR study confirms the presence of zinc ferrite nanoparticles and supported the trend of increasing size as revealed by XRD results. Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red was done by zinc ferrite nanoparticles. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles completely degrade the organic pollutant in the presence of Uv-visible light. The result shows that dye is effectively degraded with in short period of time.
Ashwatha Narayana Prabhu
Manipal University, India
Synthesis, Growth and Characterization of Acetophenone-4-Quinoline-D Chalcone Single Crystal: A Pote
The new potentially useful nonlinear optical (NLO) organic material Acetophenone-4-quinoline-D chalcone has been synthesized using claisen-schmidt condensation reaction method and single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) study was carried out to determine the structure of the compound. It was observed that the crystallite size varies from 10-10 to 10-9 with increase in angle, it may be due to compressive strain developed in the crystal. It has been observed that dislocation density, micro strain and distortion parameter changes randomly due to mismatch in the atoms or ions.The thermal stability of the compound was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method. It was found that melting point of the crystal is found to be 150.4 °C. The UV-Visible absorption study of the crystal was carried out using UV-Visible spectrophotometer over the spectral range 300-1200 nm at room temperature. It was observed that the sample has good transparency window in the entire visible and near IR region. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the crystal was recorded using powder technique using Nd: YAG laser and is found to be 1.5 times that of reference sample urea of identical particle size.