Session 01Nanomedicine and Nano Drug Delivery
Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials. Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles. Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles. The overall drug consumption and side-effects may be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. Targeted drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of drugs with concomitant decreases in consumption and treatment expenses. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. This can potentially be achieved by molecular targeting by nanoengineered devices. A benefit of using nanoscale for medical technologies is that smaller devices are less invasive and can possibly be implanted inside the body, plus biochemical reaction times are much shorter. These devices are faster and more sensitive than typical drug delivery. The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and c) successful release of the drug.
Session 02Nanotechnology Applications
Researchers are developing customized nanoparticles the size of molecules that can deliver drugs directly to diseased cells in your body. When it's perfected, this method should greatly reduce the damage treatment such as chemotherapy does to a patient's healthy cells. Nanotechnology holds some answers for how we might increase the capabilities of electronics devices while we reduce their weight and power consumption. Nanotechnology is having an impact on several aspects of food science, from how food is grown to how it is packaged. Companies are developing nanomaterials that will make a difference not only in the taste of food, but also in food safety, and the health benefits that food delivers. Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells to produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol and to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases such as oxygen. Companies have developed nanotech solar cells that can be manufactured at significantly lower cost than conventional solar cells. Companies are currently developing batteries using nanomaterials. One such battery will be a good as new after sitting on the shelf for decades. Another battery can be recharged significantly faster than conventional batteries. Nanotechnology may hold the key to making space-flight more practical. Advancements in nanomaterials make lightweight spacecraft and a cable for the space elevator possible. By significantly reducing the amount of rocket fuel required, these advances could lower the cost of reaching orbit and traveling in space. Nanotechnology can address the shortage of fossil fuels such as diesel and gasoline by making the production of fuels from low grade raw materials economical, increasing the mileage of engines, and making the production of fuels from normal raw materials more efficient. Nanotechnology is being used to develop solutions to three very different problems in water quality. One challenge is the removal of industrial wastes, such as a cleaning solvent called TCE, from groundwater. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless. Studies have shown that this method can be used successfully to reach contaminates dispersed in underground ponds and at much lower cost than methods which require pumping the water out of the ground for treatment. Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors. Because of the small size of nanotubes, nanowires, or nanoparticles, a few gas molecules are sufficient to change the electrical properties of the sensing elements. This allows the detection of a very low concentration of chemical vapors. Current nanotechnology applications in the sports arena include increasing the strength of tennis racquets, filling any imperfections in club shaft materials and reducing the rate at which air leaks from tennis balls. Making composite fabric with nano-sized particles or fibers allows improvement of fabric properties without a significant increase in weight, thickness, or stiffness as might have been the case with previously-used techniques.
Session 03Emerging Technologies in Material Science
Emerging materials is a multifaceted topic dealing with the discovery and designing of new materials. Emerging materials and nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary field of science and engineering incorporating wide range of natural and man-made materials that relates the structure, synthesis, properties, characterization, performance and material processing. The engineering of materials has advancement in healthcare industries, medical device, electronics and photonics, energy industries, batteries, fuel cells, transportation, and nanotechnology. It aims at developing materials at the Nano, micro and macro scales and involves several subjects such as biomaterials, structural materials, chemical and electrochemical materials science, computational materials science, electrochemical materials. The advances in materials leads to new revolutions in every discipline of engineering. Material scientist and engineers can develop new materials with enhanced performance by modifying the surface properties. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage. List of currently emerging technologies, which contains some of the most prominent ongoing developments, advances, and Materials Science and Nanotechnology Innovations are: Graphene, Fullerene, Conductive Polymers, Metamaterials, Nanolithography Nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes, soft lithography, Super alloy, aerogel, aero graphite, Lithium-ion batteries, etc.
Session 04Nanotechnology and Nano materials
Nanotechnology is used in Biomedical Engineering. The biomedical engineering applications include Biosensors/Biodetection, Photodynamic therapy, Thermotherapy, Surgical blades, Battery technology, Molecular imaging, in vitro diagnostics and many more. Nanotechnology is useful in detecting Chemical and Biological sensors. Nanotechnology can enable sensors to detect very small amounts of chemical vapors. Various types of detecting elements, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide nanowires or palladium nanoparticles can be used in nanotechnology-based sensors. These detecting elements change their electrical characteristics, such as resistance or capacitance, when they absorb a gas molecule. Nanotechnology is also used in sports. The sport of golf has also been impacted by nanotechnology. Nano-composite is replacing traditional materials used in manufacturing of golf clubs, making them lighter and stronger. For example, nanomaterials are used to increase the power and accuracy of the club by lowering its weight and center of gravity. Golf balls have also been modified: applying new materials has allowed the ball to fly along a much straighter path and avoid an uneven spin. Nanowires are structures with a width and depth of a few nanometres or less, but a much longer length. Electrons in these materials are free to travel along the wire, but their motion in the other two directions is governed by quantum mechanics, radically altering the properties of the material. Nanopowders are solid powders of nanoparticles, often containing micron-sized nanoparticle agglomerates. These agglomerates can be redispersed using, for example, ultrasonic processing. Nanoparticle dispersions are suspensions of nanoparticles in water or organic solvents. These dispersions can be used as-is, or diluted with suitable (compatible) solvents. Nanoparticles in dispersions can sometimes settle upon storage, in which case they can be mixed before use. Some surface-functionalized nanoparticles (for example silver and gold) are available as solutions in water or organic solvents. These are "true" solutions, which should not settle or exhibit phase separation if properly stored. Functionalized Nanomaterials illustrates the considerable interest in the development of new molecular probes for medical diagnosis and imaging. Substantial progress was made in the synthesis protocol and characterization of these materials, whereas toxicological issues are sometimes incomplete. Nanoparticle-based contrast agents (CAs) tend to become efficient tools for enhancing medical diagnostics and surgery for a wide range of imaging modalities. Functional carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) have become important due to their unique combinations of chemical and physical properties (i.e., thermal and electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and optical properties), extensive research efforts are being made to utilize these materials for various industrial applications, such as high-strength materials and electronics. Silver nanoparticle (NP)-based inks represent the most important commercial nanotechnology-derived product and the most widely studied worldwide. To better clarify the motivation of this review, we should therefore focus on the three points highlighted: the raw material (Ag), the morphology it takes (NPs), and the compound through which it is used in practical applications (ink). NanoFoil is the name trademarked by the Indium Corporation for a reactive multi-layer foil material, sometimes referred to as a pyrotechnic initiator of two mutually reactive metals, aluminium and nickel, sputtered to form thin layers to create a laminated foil. On initiation by a heat pulse, delivered by a bridge wire, a laser pulse, an electric. Silver nano prisms have readily tunable surface plasmon resonance in the visible and near IR spectrum. The prism shaped nanoparticles enhances the charge distribution around the particle. The particles cab be tuned by exposing to a precise wavelength of light tunes so they change color and absorb at a desired wavelength. Nanorods, along with other noble metal nanoparticles, also function as theragnostic agents. Nanorods absorb in the near IR, and generate heat when excited with IR light. This property has led to the use of nanorods as cancer therapeutics. A nanotube is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure. A nanotube is a kind of nanoparticle, and may be large enough to serve as a pipe through which other nanoparticles can be channeled, or, depending on the material, may be used as an electrical conductor or an electrical insulator. Nanosphere lithography (NSL) is an economical technique for generating single-layer hexagonally close packed or similar patterns of nanoscale features. Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles. They are a central theme in nanotechnology. Few ways to prepare quantum dots are through Colloidal synthesis, Plasma synthesis, Fabrication, Viral assembly, Electrochemical assembly, Bulk-manufacture, Heavy-metal-free quantum dots
Session 05Advanced Smart Materials and Structures
Smart materials innovation improves energy harvesting. A new type of smart materials with improved energy harvesting properties has been developed by French researchers. The new material is a so-called electrostrictive polymer that uses the piezo-electric effect to harness mechanical energy. This type of materials produces field-induced strain when exposed to an applied external electric field. Smart material and products are used for intelligent future, Robotics, Aerospace and Defense industry. Smart materials & structures are currently used for energy harvesters. Vibrational energy harvesters capture mechanical energy from ambient vibrations and convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy to power wireless electronic systems. Challenges exist in the process of capturing mechanical energy from ambient vibrations. Smart and Multi-functional Materials are designed so as to meet specific requirements through tailored properties. Smart materials can be considered as multifunctional ones that have the ability to react upon an external stimulus, simulating, in this way, the behavior of nature’s materials. Thermo-bimetal is a lamination of two alloys of metals with different coefficients of expansion. When heated, the “smart” material curls. This natural behavior is beneficial during construction because it enables a person to assemble the project with minimal effort and danger. With no mechanical force required, a single person can assemble the surface with a single hand. Each individual piece is heated in a conventional oven to about 350? Farenheit, the point with optimal geometric curl, then simply held into position until it cools. Auxetics are structures or materials that have a negative Poisson's ratio. When stretched, they become thicker perpendicular to the applied force. Auxetics may be useful in applications such as body armor, packing material, knee and elbow pads, robust shock absorbing material, and sponge mops. Surfaces that display contact angles >150° along with low contact angle hysteresis with essentially all high and low surface tension liquids, including water, oils and alcohols, are known as superomniphobic surfaces. Such surfaces have a range of commercial applications, including self-cleaning, non-fouling, stain-free clothing, drag reduction, corrosion prevention and separation of liquids. Such surfaces have thus generated immense academic and industrial interest in recent years. Self-healing concrete could solve the problem of concrete structures deteriorating well before the end of their service life. Concrete is still one of the main materials used in the construction industry, from the foundation of buildings to the structure of bridges and underground parking lots. Traditional concrete has a flaw, it tends to crack when subjected to tension.
Session 06Nano Particles and Nano Composites
Protein nanoparticles are used for therapeutic protein delivery. Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. At the same time, Liquid filled nanoparticles are also used as a drug delivery tool for protein therapeutics. The use of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for controlled drug delivery has shown significant therapeutic potential. Concurrently, targeted delivery technologies are becoming increasingly important as a scientific area of investigation. Albumin nanoparticle formulations including a series of potential drugs for treating cancers, rheumatoid arthritis or pulmonary fibrosis, such as, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) or tacrolimus, were developed by using nanoparticle albumin bound (Nab™) technology. Nanoscale drug delivery systems using liposomes and nanoparticles are emerging technologies for the rational delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of cancer. Their use offers improved pharmacokinetic properties, controlled and sustained release of drugs and, more importantly, lower systemic toxicity. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) are novel synthetic antioxidant agents proposed for treating oxidative stress-related diseases. The synthesis of high-quality CNPs for biomedical applications remains a challenging task. A major concern for a safe use of CNPs as pharmacological agents is their tendency to agglomerate. Recently, CeO2-NPs have been synthesized through several bio-directed methods applying natural and organic matrices as stabilizing agents in order to prepare biocompatible CeO2-NPs, thereby solving the challenges regarding safety, and providing the appropriate situation for their effective use in biomedicine. Several types of polymer coatings for iron oxide nanoparticles have been systematically explored using a novel high-throughput screening technique to optimize coating chemistries and synthetic conditions to produce nanoparticles with maximum stability. Polymeric micelles nanocarriers represent an effective delivery system for poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. With small size (10–100 nm) and hydrophilic shell of PEG, polymeric micelles exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood and enhanced tumor accumulation. A new high-performance anode structure based on silicon-carbon nanocomposite materials could significantly improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries used in a wide range of applications from hybrid vehicles to portable electronics. A nanocomposite is a matrix to which nanoparticles have been added to improve a particular property of the material. The properties of nanocomposites have caused researchers and companies to consider using this material in several fields. Some other applications of Nanocomposites include Using graphene to make composites with even higher strength-to-weight ratios, Making lightweight sensors, to make flexible batteries, Making tumors easier to see and remove.
Session 07Metallurgy, Mining and Material science
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore .Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. Tribology is defined as the science and engineering of interacting surfaces of two bodies. It involves studies such as adhesion, friction, lubrication (solid or liquid) and wear. Example of such surface interactions in engineering are numerous which includes gears and cams in automotive machines, different types of bearings, tyre/road interactions, brakes, railway wheel/track interactions, engine/piston interactions etc. Even in nature, we have tribological designs in human joints such as hip and knee. More recent trend is to study tribology at nano-scale interactions such as those encountered in magnetic hard disk drives, micro-electro-mechanical systems, nano/micro-machining etc. Tribological problems can be solved by applying various engineering solutions. Lubrication, coatings, hardening of surfaces, texturing are some of the solutions that can be engineered based on specific application, thermal/stress conditions and the environment. Expendable mold casting is a generic classification that includes sand, plastic, shell, plaster, and investment (lost-wax technique) moldings. This method of mold casting involves the use of temporary, non-reusable molds. Non-expendable mold casting differs from expendable processes in that the mold need not be reformed after each production cycle. This technique includes at least four different methods: permanent, die, centrifugal, and continuous casting. This form of casting also results in improved repeatability in parts produced and delivers Near Net Shape results. There are three types of shrinkage: shrinkage of the liquid, solidification shrinkage and patternmaker's shrinkage. The shrinkage of the liquid is rarely a problem because more material is flowing into the mold behind it. Solidification shrinkage occurs because metals are less dense as a liquid than a solid, so during solidification the metal density dramatically increases. Patternmaker's shrinkage refers to the shrinkage that occurs when the material is cooled from the solidification temperature to room temperature, which occurs due to thermal contraction. Tilt filling, also known as tilt casting, is an uncommon filling technique where the crucible is attached to the gating system and both are slowly rotated so that the metal enters the mold cavity with little turbulence. The goal is to reduce porosity and inclusions by limiting turbulence. Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. There are two basic types of extraction: surface and sub-surface (deep), each relying on a variety of techniques. Regardless of process, U.S. legislation requires operators to submit a plan for restoring the land and mitigating acid mine drainage before a permit is granted for mining operations. Heating of machine parts with rust or scale on the surface in salt baths induces pitting at points where the rust or scale occurs. Powder metallurgy is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders. Powder metallurgy processes can avoid, or greatly reduce, the need to use metal removal processes, thereby drastically reducing yield losses in manufacture and often resulting in lower costs. Powder production techniques include Sponge iron process, Atomization, Centrifugal disintegration. Powder compaction is the process of compacting metal powder in a die through the application of high pressures. Typically the tools are held in the vertical orientation with the punch tool forming the bottom of the cavity. The powder is then compacted into a shape and then ejected from the die cavity. The other different process of powder compaction include Die pressing, Design considerations and Isostatic pressing. Solid state sintering is the process of taking metal in the form of a powder and placing it into a mold or die. Once compacted into the mold the material is placed under a high heat for a long period of time. Under heat, bonding takes place between the porous aggregate particles and once cooled the powder has bonded to form a solid piece.
Session 08Carbon Nanomaterials, Devices and Technologies
Carbon nanomaterials have a unique place in nanoscience owing to their exceptional electrical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties and have found application in areas diverse as composite materials, energy storage and conversion, sensors, drug delivery, field emission devices and nanoscale electronic components. Conjugated carbon nanomaterials cover the areas of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and graphene. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have exceptional physical properties that make them one of the most promising building blocks for future nanotechnologies. They may in particular play an important role in the development of innovative electronic devices in the fields of flexible electronics, ultra-high sensitivity sensors, high frequency electronics, opto-electronics, energy sources and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS)
Session 09Ceramics, Composite and Polymeric Materials
A ceramic is an inorganic compound, non-metallic, solid material comprising metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. Composites are engineered products made from two or more different materials. A composite product provides a designed solution that surpasses the performance of the starting materials. While there are many variations of composites, the most common engineered composite materials are fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). Polymeric materials have widespread application due to their versatile characteristics, cost-effectiveness, and highly tailored production. The science of polymer synthesis allows for excellent control over the properties of a bulk polymer sample. However, surface interactions of polymer substrates are an essential area of study in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and in all forms of coating applications.
Session 10Graphene and its potential applications
Graphene is one of the forms of carbon. Like diamonds and graphite, the forms (or 'allotropes') of carbon have different crystal structures, and this gives them different properties. Graphene is the basic 2D (two dimensional) form of a number of 3D allotropes, such as graphite, charcoal, fullerene and carbon nanotubes. Potential graphene applications include lightweight, thin, flexible, yet durable display screens, electric/photonics circuits, solar cells, and various medical, chemical and industrial processes enhanced or enabled by the use of new graphene materials. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, also called nano-graphene ribbons or nano-graphite ribbons) are strips of graphene with width less than 50 nm.
Session 11Electronic and Magnetic Materials
Electronic materials are materials studied and used mainly for their electrical properties. The electric response of materials largely stems from the dynamics of electrons, and their interplay with atoms and molecules. A material can be classified as a conductor, semiconductor or insulator according to its response to an external electric field. Electronic materials are the type of materials which are typically used as core elements in a variety of device applications. These elements can be, for example, memories, displays, LEDs and could be easily seen in daily electronic gadgets such as mobile phones, computers, laptops, tablets, GPS devices, LED bulbs, TVs and monitors. Changing dimensions and level of functionality requires continuous efforts to develop state of the art materials to meet the technological challenges associated with development of these devices. For example, transition from CRT based displays to LCD and then LED based displays could not have been possible without development of materials such as liquid crystals, organic semiconductors and electroluminescent materials. Similarly, high density storage capacity would not have been possible without development of materials with high permittivity and permeability in dielectrics and magnetic materials. The magnetic properties of all materials make them respond in some way to a magnetic field, but most materials are diamagnetic or paramagnetic and show almost no response. The materials that are most important to magnetic technology are ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials.
Session 12Nano Biotechnology and Green Nanotechnology
Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies. Nano-biotechnology refers to the science of integration between biology and nanotechnology. This being a very emerging branch, nanobiology and bionanotechnology are its sister terms. Various concepts that are being emerged from nanobiotechnology are nanodevices, nanocantilevers and nanoparticles. Green nanotechnology refers to the use of nanotechnology to enhance the environmental sustainability of processes producing negative externalities. It also refers to the use of the products of nanotechnology to enhance sustainability. It includes making green nano-products and using nano-products in support of sustainability.
Session 13Microtechnology and Nano Robotics
Microtechnology is the use of compact, or very small, technical devices. Microtechnology embraces microcomputer parts, space microdevices, microsurgery, and microelectronics. Both microfilm and microfiche, which store information on film, are also examples of microtechnology; microfiche generally stores more than microfilm. The term "micro," derived from the Greek word mikros, meaning small, is used to describe something that is unusually small. Technology is the application of inventions and discoveries to meet needs or obtain goals. Microtechnology has the advantages of taking up less space, using less construction material, and costing less money. Initial manufacturing of such small components requires invention or reapplication of existing technology, a trained manufacturer, and precise manufacturing conditions. The resulting smaller equipment is less expensive to transport and store; this aspect of microtechnology makes it ideally suited for use in outer space. Nanorobotics describes the technology of producing machines or robots at the nanoscale. 'Nanobot' is an informal term to refer to engineered nano machines. Though currently hypothetical, nanorobots will advance many fields through the manipulation of nano-sized objects.
Session 14Nano electronics, Nano sensors and Nano coatings
Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. The term covers a diverse set of devices and materials, with the common characteristic that they are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. Nanosensors are chemical or mechanical sensors that can be used to detect the presence of chemical species and nanoparticles, or monitor physical parameters such as temperature, on the nanoscale. They also find use in medical diagnostic applications. The term nanocoating refers to nanoscale (i.e. with a thickness of a few tens to a few hundreds of nanometers) thin-films that are applied to surfaces in order create or improve a material's functionalities such as corrosion protection, water and ice protection, friction reduction, antifouling and antibacterial properties, self-cleaning, heat and radiation resistance, and thermal management.
Session 15Material Physics and Mechanics of Materials
Material physics is the use of physics to describe the physical properties of materials. It is a synthesis of physical sciences such as chemistry, solid mechanics, solid state physics, and materials science. Materials physics is considered a subset of condensed matter physics and applies fundamental condensed matter concepts to complex multiphase media, including materials of technological interest. Current fields that materials physicists work in include electronic, optical, and magnetic materials, novel materials and structures, quantum phenomena in materials, nonequilibrium physics, and soft condensed matter physics. New experimental and computational tools are constantly improving how materials systems are modeled and studied and are also fields when materials physicists work in. Mechanics of Materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts. The methods employed to predict the response of a structure under loading and its susceptibility to various failure modes takes into account the properties of the materials such as its yield strength, ultimate strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio; in addition the mechanical element's macroscopic properties (geometric properties), such as its length, width, thickness, boundary constraints and abrupt changes in geometry such as holes are considered.
Session 16Nano photonics and optics
Nanophotonics or nano-optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, optical engineering, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. It often (but not exclusively) involves metallic components, which can transport and focus light via surface plasmon polaritons. Metamaterials are artificial materials engineered to have properties that may not be found in nature. They are created by fabricating an array of structures much smaller than a wavelength. The small (nano) size of the structures is important: That way, light interacts with them as if they made up a uniform, continuous medium, rather than scattering off the individual structures.
A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. As a science, biomaterials are about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. Biomaterials are used in Joint replacements, Bone plates, Intraocular lenses (IOLs) for eye surgery, Bone cement, Artificial ligaments and tendons, Dental implants for tooth fixation, Blood vessel prostheses, Heart valves, Skin repair devices (artificial tissue), Cochlear replacements, Contact lenses, Breast implants, Drug delivery mechanisms, Sustainable materials, Vascular grafts, Stents, Nerve conduits, Surgical sutures, clips, and staples for wound closure, Pins and screws for fracture stabilization, Surgical mesh. Biomaterials must be compatible with the body, and there are often issues of biocompatibility which must be resolved before a product can be placed on the market and used in a clinical setting. Because of this, biomaterials are usually subjected to the same requirements as those undergone by new drug therapies.
Session 18Materials for Energy Storage
Materials hold the key to many advanced energy technologies including solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, and catalysis. With the increasing need for cost-efficient methods for energy storage and conversion, it has become imperative to accelerate the rate at which energy-related materials are developed. We use fast, scalable computational methods to identify and design new materials for energy storage and conversion. Renewable and clean energy technologies are central to the sustainable development of mankind. Therefore, research and development of new materials for energy conversion and storage are at the forefront of materials science and engineering.
Session 19Nanotoxicology and Nano Pharmaceutics
Nanotoxicology is a sub-specialty of particle toxicology. Nanomaterials appear to have toxicity effects that are unusual and not seen with larger particles. For example, even inert elements like gold become highly active at nanometer dimensions. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings. Nanoparticles have much larger surface area to unit mass ratios which in some cases may lead to greater pro-inflammatory effects in, for example, lung tissue. In addition, some nanoparticles seem to be able to translocate from their site of deposition to distant sites such as the blood and the brain. Nanoparticles can be inhaled, swallowed, absorbed through skin and deliberately or accidentally injected during medical procedures. They might be accidentally or inadvertently released from materials implanted into living tissue. One study considers release of airborne engineered nanoparticles at workplaces, and associated worker exposure from various production and handling activities, to be very probable. Today’s, nanotechnology is integral part of pharmaceutics and Drug delivery system. In pharmaceutical science size is an important matter because it influences the drugs bioavailability,toxicity reduction and better formulation. Nano size enhances drug performance many fold. It provides intelligent systems, devices and materials for better pharmaceutical applications.
Session 20Environmental and Green Materials
Green home design includes building for energy efficiency, including the use of renewable energy sources such as wind, water, or solar; creating a healthy indoor environment; implementing natural ventilation systems; and using construction materials that minimise the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the home. The use of materials and resources that are sustainable, have low embodied energy, and produce a minimal environmental impact are key elements in green construction, as is the efficient use of water by appliances, faucets and shower heads, the recycling of grey water, and the reuse of rain water for landscaping and other non-potable purposes. When considering the environmental properties of materials, look for materials that are abundant, non-toxic, have low embodied energy, and meet or exceed regulations.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space". Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extra solar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background. Their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition. Because astrophysics is a very broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics.